Instructions for Authors for Contributions to Annals of Carnegie Museum
Annals of Carnegie Museum is a quarterly journal that publishes peer-reviewed short and medium-length original scientific contributions in organismal biology, earth sciences (including paleontology), and anthropology. Subject matter must be relevant to Carnegie Museum of Natural History (CMNH) scientific sections or Powdermill Nature Reserve (PNR), preferably with connection to CMNH collections and/or personnel. CMNH staff and research associates receive publication priority, but others are encouraged to submit papers, especially those manuscripts explicitly based on CMNH collections. Direct inquiries regarding the appropriateness of a specific contribution to the Senior Editor:
John R. Wible
Section of Mammals
Carnegie Museum of Natural History
5800 Baum Blvd.
Pittsburgh, PA 15206
The overall publication size is 8½ x 11 inches. The standard text and image area of each page is 171 by 220 mm (486 by 624 points or 6¾ x 8 2/3 inches). Figure widths are 234 points (single column) or 486 points (full page), with height less than 624 points to allow for captions (e.g., a four-line captions requires 45 points, so that maximum figure height would be 579 points).
Authors should give particular attention to scientific content, format, and general style for the Annals. Manuscripts that do not conform to the style of the Annals will be returned to the author(s).
Every manuscript will be subjected to anonymous external peer review. Authors should submit the names, addresses, phone and fax numbers, and e-mail addresses of at least three qualified potential (non-CMNH) reviewers for each manuscript. After the peer review process is completed, the CMNH Corresponding Editor, in consultation with the Senior Editor, approves the manuscript for production and returns it to the author for revision, or rejects the manuscript. The revised document will be placed in production after the final submission is approved. Authors will be asked to subsidize, if funds are available, any or all costs of publications (approximately $100/page printed).
Manuscripts (including illustrations) must be submitted as electronic files to the Senior Editor (e-mail address above). Consult the guidelines that follow.
All senior authors must sign a copyright transfer form prior to publication that assigns all literary rights to CMNH. Forms will be sent with proofs.
Reprints and Other Chargeable Costs
With the availability of high quality digital files for separates, no hard-copy reprints are provided for free to appropriate CMNH Scientific Sections as was done for many years (Amphibians and Reptiles, Anthropology, Birds, Botany, Invertebrate Paleontology, Invertebrate Zoology, Mammals, Mollusks, and Vertebrate Paleontology). Sections and authors must purchase their own separates, but will be provided with a PDF file of their publication for free. Authors and curators may order these reprints at the proof stage.
Authors are responsible for all color-reproduction charges. Address queries to the Senior Editor.
A PDF file of the published article will be provided to the senior author. The senior author may deposit that PDF file on his/her Web Site.
General Aspects of the Manuscript
Articles should include the following items in this order: title page, abstract, text (with desired headings, see below), acknowledgments, literature cited, tables, appendices, figure captions, and illustrations. All manuscripts must be set in 12 point font, double- spaced, and in standard 8½ x 11 format. Words intended to be italicized, underlined, or in boldface in the final work should be submitted in that form in the manuscript. Do not right-justify text or use hyphenation to break words at ends of lines. Do not use footnotes. Manuscript should be set with a minimal amount of formatting needed to distinguish parts of the content (i.e., paragraph indents, centered headings, use of bold and italic type). Refrain from using elaborate formatting features such as bullets or numbering systems, underlined text, or style sheets. All pages should be numbered including tables, literature cited, and figure captions. Refer to the most recent issues of the Annals for examples of illustration and caption sizes and placement, standard text, tables, and citations styles.
Symbols and related conventions worth noting include: restriction of use of symbols for sexes to lists of specimens in taxonomic accounts and appendices (otherwise spell out); inclusion of commas only in numbers containing five or more digits; preceding decimal points with a numeral (a zero if number less than one); writing out numerals from zero to ten, and ordinals from first to tenth; deleting spaces within specifications of latitude or longitude (e.g., 12°10’29”W); dropping periods from standard abbreviations for time (yr, mo, wk, d, hr, sec) and dimension (km, m, cm, mm, cc, kg, g, mg); use of commonly used statistical symbols (s, CV, N [for entire population], n [for sample], df, r, t, F, and P); not italicizing selected, commonplace, abbreviations for Latin expressions (i.e., [include comma], e.g., [include comma], ca., cf., vs., etc., per se, et al.); use of the abbreviation YBP for designation of geological ages; and deletion of intervening spaces in abbreviations U.S.A., M.S., and Ph.D. Measurements should be in metric units.
For examples of writing style and other technical details common to scientific journals in general, authors are directed to the CBE style manual (Huth, E.J. 1994. Scientific Style and Format: The CBE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers. Sixth Edition. Cambridge University Press).
Title Page. The title page should contain the title (all caps), names(s) of author(s), and a running head of no more than 55 characters that will be printed at the top of each right hand page. Title should state the subject matter as briefly as possible including the animal or plant group involved. CMNH employees’ affiliation should include title at CMNH, followed by complete mailing address; CMNH research associates should include that title and CMNH section. Non-CMNH employees’ affiliation should include complete mailing address. All authors should include e-mail addresses.
Abstract. The Abstract should provide a concise summary of the objectives, empirical basis, and findings of the study; abstracts should not simply be short introductions to the work or vague generalizations about what is detailed inside. New taxa described (including binomials) or other major taxonomic actions should be included in the Abstract.
Keywords. Provide up to eight keywords following the Abstract that are not redundant with words in the title, listed alphabetically.
Text. Where possible, the primary subdivisions consistent with those used in most scientific journals should be used. For analytical works of non-taxonomic nature, these are: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results or Descriptions, Discussion, Acknowledgments, and Literature Cited. For systematic accounts, Results might be replaced with Systematic Botany, Systematic Paleontology, or Systematic Zoology (see below). Optional primary headings include Localities and Conclusions. Lists of institutional acronyms are properly listed at the end of the Materials and Methods.
Level 1 headings: Format in all capital letters, centered (use for Abstract, Introduction, and main text headings).
Level 2 headings: Centered, initial capital letters and the rest lower-case.
Level 3 headings: Flush left, initial capitals and lower-case, follow with period and two hyphens, and run into text.
If needed, an additional level of heading can be inserted after Level 3: Paragraph indent, initial capitals and lower-case, and run into text.
Systematic Accounts. These are distinguished from the rest of the manuscript by inclusion under an appropriate primary heading, such as Systematic Botany, Systematic Paleontology, or Systematic Zoology, which should include a Linnaean ranked hierarchy with at least Class, Order, and Family. Under this, taxonomic names (and their authors) appear as centered headings with genus-group names and species-group names bolded and italicized; associated synonyms, figure citations, etc. are treated as separate headings of equal rank immediately following the taxon. A diagnosis or description section is required for accounts of all new species, and is preferred for all taxa. A lengthy example follows as it would appear in the journal, but these are often shorter, under headings such as Systematic Entomology that would begin with Order and perhaps include only Family and Subfamily:
Class Mammalia Linnaeus, 1758
Order Rodentia Bowdich, 1821
Family Sciuridae Gray, 1821
Subfamily Sciurinae Gray, 1821
Tribe Tamiini Moore, 1959
Genus Tamias Illiger, 1811
Tamias rawlinsi, new species
In general, formally entitled diagnoses should be written in complete sentences and be comparative with respect to phylogenetically related or phenetically similar taxa.
Descriptions generally are written as telegraphic series of descriptive terms or phrases, without verbs, most modifiers following their antecedents, and with minimal use of articles and conjunctions.
Special conventions apply to the listing of specimens examined and associated localities, material typically presented in a separate, tertiary subsection in a systematic account; these sections generally will appear in small type in the final publication. Listings are organized hierarchically by country and by one or more civil subdivisions thereof (state or province), and for larger countries, by counties or parishes as well. Countries are sequenced alphabetically or geographically. Country names are spelled out, entirely in upper-case, roman, boldface, and followed by a period; the first country name begins the first line of the tertiary subsection, with subsequent country names being indented as the first word of separate paragraphs. Primary and secondary subdivisions of countries are listed alphabetically within each and given in boldface; where two levels of subdivision are used, names for the primary level are given in the same style as country names, with those for secondary subdivisions given in title case, boldface, and followed by a colon.
Conventions permit some flexibility for listings of diverse geographical scale; e.g., sections limited to information from a single country might use state names in the manner described above for countries, with counties serving as primary subdivisions. Special attention must be given to precise and accurate spelling of all place names and foreign language words with full diacritical marks included. This will require frequent reference to appropriate foreign language dictionaries and gazetteers.
Details concerning collectors and specimens should be presented in a consistent manner across localities. Standard abbreviations are permissible, but measurements given in non-metric units should not be converted to metric (e.g., elevations given in ft). Typically this material in given in roman font; exceptions, which are set off in italics, include lot numbers or other indicators of specific specimens or samples (in zoological works) or the name of the collector and collection number (in botanical works). Acronyms of corresponding collections (if given) should be listed parenthetically at the end of each account; acronyms are to be separated by commas (e.g., AMNH, CM), or by semicolons if numbers of specimens are indicated (AMNH, 3; CM, 2).
An example follows (as it would appear in the journal). Note: This section would also be double-spaced in a submitted manuscript. Also, the symbols for male and female, which cannot be reproduced in the on-line version of this guide, appear here as “male” and “female”.
Specimens Examined.—UNITED STATES. ARIZONA. Apache Co.: 3-5 mi SE Alpine, 1450 m, 18 June 1953, J.O. Collector, 1 female (CNC). Gila Co.: Tonto Creek State Fish Hatchery, 1890 m, 13 May 1976, 1 male (LA). Pima Co.: Santa Catalina Mts., Mt. Lemmon, Upper Bear, 1300 m, 18 May 1961, J.O. Collector, 9 male (AMNH); no specific locality, 24 June 1964, 2 male (AMNH). El Paso Co.: near Colorado Springs, 750 m, 7 May 1956, J.O. Collector, 1 male (LA); Rock Creek Canyon near Colorado Springs, 1450 m, 13 May 1976, J.O. Collector, 28 male, 6 female (AMNH, LA, USNM).
TEXAS. Brewster Co.: The Basin, Big Bend National Park, 1450 m, 18 May 1912, J.O. Collector, 25 male, 14 female (AMNH, CNC, LA, ROK); Government Spring, Big Bend National Park, 750 m, 24 April 1914, J.O. Collector, 1 female (AMNH). County unknown: Delacorn Junction, 14 June 1954, 1 female (CMNH). STATE UNKNOWN. Jabberwock, 2100 m, 4 June 1966, A.W. Land (AMNH); Lexington, 2 female (CMNH).
MEXICO. Chihuahua: Creel, 750 m, 18 April 1915, J.O. Collector, 2 male
(UCD); Sierra de Choreachic, 14 mi W Cuauhtemoc, 800 m, 24 May 1916,
J.O. Collector, 1 male (LA). Coahuila: 17 mi SE Saltillo, 750 m, 7 June 1912,
J.O. Collector, 1 female (UCB); 24 km ESE Saltillo, 1890 m, 24 April 1916,
J.O. Collector, 1 male (ROK).
GUATEMALA. Alta Verapáz: Coban, Chajsel [Chejel], 13 May 1923, J.O. Collector, 1 male, 1 female (USNM).
COSTA RICA. Cartago: Juan Viñas, 1300 m, 7 April 1922, J.O. Collector, 2 male (BMNH, USNM); Orosí, Volcan Irazú, 750 m, J.O. Collector, 2 male, 3 female (BMNH). Puntarenas: Monteverde, 750 m, 7 April 1924, J.O. Collector, 6 male, 6 female (AMNH, BMNH, DHJ, LA). San José: San José, 1890 m, 24 May 1922, J.O. Collector, 1 female (BMNH).
LOCALITY UNKNOWN. 3 female, (FMNH); 3 female, (USNM,
paralectotypes of Leptosoma pentabulum Censky); 2 male, 2 female (BMNH).
Provision of verbatim label data, the precise reproduction of material written on specimen labels, should be restricted to the documentation of primary type specimens. Such material should be clearly identified as such, be enclosed in double quotation marks with exact orthography and punctuation, and with any explanatory details enclosed in square brackets outside of the quotation marks surrounding the label text. Any letters, symbols, or punctuation marks (including diagonal slashes, brackets, parentheses, or other quotation marks) given within the double quotation marks that enclose the verbatim label data must correspond to symbols actually appearing on the label(s). If multiple labels are involved, the data are presented as a single paragraph and the material from each is separated from the others with a diagonal slash (/). A hypothetical example involving three labels follows (as it would appear in the journal):
Verbatim label data.—”HOLOTYPE Livezeya candida J.E. King male” [red paper]/ “”The only specimen [female] at Carn. Mus.”–W. Holland” [handwritten in pencil]/ “J.E.K., 3/15/93!” [“male!” on back of label].
Taxonomic accounts in botanical works generally are similar to those described above, but differ in the first line of a species account, in which the species name and authors is shown as a left-justified heading preserving italics of taxa and the family name is placed as a right-justified heading in roman font. An example follows (as it would appear in the journal):
Anemia abbottii Maxon
Conventions pertaining to synonymies present special challenges for the Annals of Carnegie Museum in that substantially different conventions are used in different branches of systematics. Stylistic conventions of synonymies are especially marked between invertebrate paleontologists and those systematists working on vertebrates and modern invertebrates. Conventions applicable to these two extremes are treated separately.
Zoology and Vertebrate Paleontology. In taxonomic accounts including lists of synonyms, the latter should be presented as a series of paragraphs, using hanging indentations or tabs for all lines but the first, beginning with the taxon (in italics), followed by an abbreviated citation or citations (limited to author[s], year, and page number). The citation for the original author is followed by a period; all subsequent citations for a given taxon should be separated by semicolons. For all citations of other combinations, list the taxon first, followed by its author and a colon; all subsequent citations should follow in chronological order, separated by semicolons. Additional comments should be enclosed in square brackets; these might include type designations, type depositories, type species for genera, etc. Annotation of new or revised synonymy should be placed at the end of the corresponding entry and set in boldface, and annotation of misspellings or misidentifications should be treated similarly but enclosed in brackets. For misidentifications, the combination is listed without an author, followed by the citation substantiating the misidentification; do not list the misidentified name and its author in the synonymy. Greater taxonomic detail may necessitate the use of supplementary organizational conventions and hierarchical schemes of indentation. In synonymies including both fossil and modern species, daggers may be used to distinguish taxa referring to extinct forms.
An example including comparatively great taxonomic detail follows (as it would appear in the journal):
Bus specularis (McCoy), new combination
(Figs. 14C, 16–21, 31A–C)
Aus specularis McCoy, 1961:22. HOLOTYPE male, Guatemala (USNM) [examined]. Heitzman, 1963:476; Dodson, 1971:35, plate 38b [photograph of holotype; unnecessary lectotype designation as type was clearly identified in original description].
Aus delectus Goode, 1984:156. Lawrence, 1985:15; Biddle, 1985:345, 356;
Dogwood, 1988:16, plate 11. New synonymy.
Dea delecta: Ball, 1985:13; Blowsnough, 1989:pl. 4, fig. 1 [hind wings atypically dark].
Aus delectubus: Houston, 1987:2 [misspelling].
Aus terminus Crowley, 1988:16 (not Schrank, 1981:412) [misidentification].
Invertebrate Paleontology. For representative examples of typical species-level synonymies in this scientific discipline, see Carter (1988; Bulletin of Carnegie Museum of Natural History, 27:1-82). Annotations of synonyms of higher-level taxa are included by Carter et al. (1994; Annals of Carnegie Museum, 63:327-374).
Construction of Keys
Keys to identification represent another exceptional format, one that includes interdisciplinary variation in entrenched styles. Therefore the editorial staff of the Annals of Carnegie Museum once again seeks a compromise between uniformity of style on aspects acceptable to all disciplines, while accommodating essential differences among disciplines in stylistic traditions.
Normally, headings for keys are treated like taxa within taxonomic accounts, i.e., centered, only first letters of words in upper-case, with all words but taxa in roman font. However, alternative arrangements may be considered, e.g., treatment as a tertiary heading within a secondary section dealing with that taxonomic group. Headings for keys minimally should specify the rank determined and the taxon covered, and should also indicate the age class(es) and character group(s) included in the key (e.g., Key to Subgenera of Taxon X using External Genitalia of Adults).
All keys should be strictly dichotomous, with opposing parts of each section being treated as paragraphs with hanging indentations, and couplets should be separated by single blank lines. Parts of couplets should share an Arabic numeral and be distinguished in one of two ways: (1) by adding a lower-case “a” to the first member and a “b” to the second member of a couplet; or (2) by adding an apostrophe to the lead number of the second member of a couplet. It is recommended that the first member of each couplet be followed immediately by the number of the last keyed couplet in parentheses. Taxa given in terminal entries may be followed by parenthetical references to the page giving the corresponding taxonomic account in the present work.
An example using the apostrophe option for distinguishing members of couplets follows (as it would appear in the journal):
25 (13´). Color of eyes brown, or if black, then chin not abruptly declined……….26
25´. Color of eyes black; chin always smoothly rounded …. H. sapiens (p. 128)
(25). Hair of eyebrows extending across midline anterior to nose ……………….27
26´. Hair of eyebrows not continuous across midline or eyebrows absent ……31
All references to literature in the text must appear in the literature cited. The data (author, year, and page) in both citations must agree. Names used only to indicate authorship of scientific names in the text should not be included in the literature cited.
Please note the following important, but frequently overlooked conventions.
- Spell out names of periodicals.
- Include parenthetically the number of the issue in a citation, especially when the periodical in question is not paginated continuously throughout a single volume.
- Include the last name and initials of all authors of each reference, i.e., do not use “et al.” in the Literature Cited.
- The names of all authors ultimately are published using capitals and small capitals. Submit them using capitals and lower-case letters, but remove spaces between initials. For example, “Rawlins, J.E.” not “Rawlins, J. E.”
- Include a comma between the penultimate author’s name and the word “and” in a list of authors.
- Include a comma between the periodical name and the volume number.
- Do not include a space between the colon following the volume number and the pages.
- Spell out names of states and countries for publishers of books.
The following are examples of how references should appear in the Literature Cited section of a manuscript. Reference citation in the text is as follow: (Wible 2000) or (Wible and Rawlins 2001) or (Wible et al. 2002).
Article that is part of a regular journal series:
Wahlert, J.H. 1977. Cranial foramina and relationships of Eutypomys (Rodentia, Eutypomyidae). American Museum Novitates, 2626:1-8.
Soltis, D.E., and P.S. Soltis. 1992. The distribution of selfing rates in homosporous ferns.
American Journal of Botany, 79:97-100.
Holmgren, P.K., N.H. Holmgren, and L.C. Barnett (eds.). 1990. Index Herbariorum, Part I, Eighth Edition. Regnum Vegetabile, 120:1-693.
Samways, M.J 1994. Insect Conservation Biology. Chapman and Hall, London. 380 pp.
New edition of a book:
Ostle, B., and R.W. Mensing. 1975. Statistics in Research, Third Edition. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa.
Wilson, D.E., and D.M. Reeder (eds.). 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Second Edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Sokal, R.R., and F.J. Rohlf. 1981. Biometry, Second Edition. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York.
Chapter or paper in an edited volume:
Asher, R.J. 2005. Insectivoran-grade placentals. Pp. 50-70, in The Rise of Placental Mammals (K.D. Rose and J.D. Archibald, eds.). The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
Rougier, G.W., J.R. Wible, and M.J. Novacek. 2004. New specimen of Deltatheroides cretacicus (Metatheria, Deltatheriididae) from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia. In Fanfare for an Uncommon Paleontologist: Papers in Honor of Malcolm C. McKenna (M.R. Dawson and J.A. Lillegraven, eds.). Bulletin of Carnegie Museum of Natural History, 36:245-266.
Reference to a dissertation:
Rasmussen, D.L. 1977. Geology and mammalian paleontology of the Oligocene-Miocene Cabbage Patch Formation, central-western Montana. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas.
Reference to a web site:
Fetzner, J.W., Jr. 2008. Biodiversity Services Facility, Collection and Identification Services [cited 16 July 2008]. Available from http://iz.carnegiemnh.org/CMIC/Default.org
Figures – Digital Format
Figures must be submitted in digital form. Requirements are as follows:
- The figures must be saved as high-resolution TIFF files (not JPEG’s).
- Figures may be line art, halftones, and color figures. With the submitted disk or CD include a list of all files with file name, type, and size. Digital files must be accompanied by hard copy proofs that exactly match the files.
- Line art should be scanned at 1200 ppi (pixels per inch). Halftone and color images require an input resolution of 600 dpi. Halftones should have end dot settings of 2% in the lightest area and 98% in the darkest area of the image. Color files must be submitted in CMYK mode.
- Convert all fonts to curves or paths (outlines) in Illustrator. Photoshop files will be flattened when converted to TIFF, embedding any fonts in place. [Make a final archive copy of the Illustrator file for future use before converting the type to paths because after this point you cannot alter the labels.]
- Submit images at their final size. In the case of figures intended to occupy a full page, authors should leave room for the figure legend without continuing the text onto the next page.
Figures – Labels and Layout
If figures consist of a single image then no number is needed except in the caption. If multiple images are included in a single figure (plate), then label each with upper-case letters in lower left of each individual photo (A, B,, C, etc.) or for non-photographic work put label letter above and to left of individual figure. Place letter so its association with a given drawing or image is not ambiguous, and avoid putting the letter over structures in photographs, or inside the outline of structures in line drawings. Label font and size should be uniform for all figures in a given manuscript. Font should be seraph-free and when published be 3-5 mm in height (1/8 to 3/16 inch). The preferred height for letters designating separate figures is 5 mm, with 3-4 mm height for text, abbreviations, or names appearing on figures. Lettering is black, or white only when figure backgrounds are medium gray to black.
Photographs or other material with non-white backgrounds in a compound figure will be separated by the technical editor using narrow white ruling (horizontal and vertical, about 3/64 inch or 1 mm wide), uniform in width for all figures whether 2-column or single- column. If subdivisions or insets are used on some figures, then those should be separated by white ruling that is narrower than that between figures, about 1/32 inch wide. In general, authors should scan images at high resolution and send as digital image files with manuscript (see preferred resolution above). Authors should NOT insert white ruling between figures as this will be done by the technical editor. Whenever possible, authors should compile compound plates with each image in its own layer, and each lettering on each image in its own layer. This will not be possible if images are prepared as hard copies, labeled, and then scanned. Authors are encouraged to do the best they can with image preparation, asking for help as needed.
Indication of Scale
Scale lines with numerical labels in figure are preferred, but if lines are present without labels or the figure has no scale line, then a comment at end of each lettered section of caption will be necessary for compound plates, or at end of entire caption if all parts of plate are at same scale. A numbered scale line on the figure is always preferred over a blank scale line or none with just a written statement of size in the caption. Keep scale lines fairly short with clear small lettering; avoid double scale lines and those with elaborate crossbars; do not place lines close to edge of figure. For compound plates, attempt to place scales lines in similar position for each figure in the plate, and avoid redundant scale lines where possible (i.e., if all figures on a plate are the same scale, then a single scale line will suffice).
Start this section on a new page at the end of the manuscript. In most cases, captions begin with an initial general statement applicable to all parts of a compound plate. This should end in a period or colon. Then individual sections can be described following their appropriate letters, each section punctuated by a semicolon.
Fig. 12.—Four separate photographs of unknown origin. A, first photograph; B, second photograph; C, third photograph with damage to lower edge; D, fourth photograph (scale unknown). Scale = 50mm.
Fig. X.—Descriptive term for entire plate. A, minimal descriptive expression (modifiers or inserted comments if any); B, minimal descriptive expression (modifiers or inserted comments if any). C-E, descriptive phrase for subset of figures: C, individual descriptive expression (modifiers or comments if any); D, individual descriptive expression (modifiers or comments if any); E, individual descriptive expression (modifiers or comments if any). F, minimal descriptive expression (modifiers or inserted comments if any). Optional scale = ##mm.
Tables and Appendices
Tables should be produced using a standard software program (e.g., Word, Excel). Tables typically should be reserved for quantitative material that entails multiple columns and that is essential for an understanding of the text and the conclusions drawn therein.
Appendices provide comparatively flexible formats for the presentation of lists and extensive matrices and ancillary data. Lists of taxa, raw data, or other compendia of interest to only a minority of readers should be presented as appendices and appear sequentially (numbered using Arabic numerals) at the end of the paper. Also, lists of institutional names or acronyms (limited to those used in text or tables) may be presented as appendices as an alternative to presenting them at the end of the Introduction or Methods sections.
For digital files, please start all filenames with the name of the first author and preferably also the date (e.g., Jones30Sept05). Submit electronic text preferably as Microsoft Word files and illustrations as TIFF files at 1200 dpi for line art and 600 dpi for halftone and color images.
Proofs will be sent to the author as PDF files. The PDF file may be marked by the author using tools in Adobe Acrobat, or a hard copy may be printed, then marked and returned by mail. The author should answer all queried proof marks and check the entire proof copy. Return corrected page proof promptly to the Office of Scientific Publications. If an author chooses to make extensive alterations to a paper in proof stage, the author will bear the cost.